The 2S3 Acacia is armed with the 152mm howitzer. It is capable of firing armour piercingtracer (AP-T), high-explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT), illumination, smoke, and nuclear projectiles. The 2S3 Acacia carries 46 rounds arranged in two mechanised stowage units (one in the turret and one in the rear of the hull). The maximum range of the howitzer is 17.4 km (10.8 miles).
The 2S3 Acacia has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and driver. Two additional ammunition bearers can be attached when firing from a static position. They are stationed to the rear of the vehicle to feed additional ammunition to the crew inside the vehicle through the rear hatches.