This change in scheme also conferred the benefit of taking advantage in advances in paint technology, allowing some infra-red spectrum diffusion and limited protection against chemical warfare agents. West Germany was the first NATO nation to start applying the scheme to their vehicles during scheduled refit operations.
The paint scheme is generally applied by organisations that are specially equipped to deal with the hazardous properties of the chemically resistant paint. As part of the application process each type of vehicle (or equipment) is painted to a template that has been developed specifically for that vehicle, with a spray gun giving the pattern a soft edged look when viewed from fairly short distances. This means that each every vehicle of a particular type (for example Leopard 2) has the same camo scheme applied in the same way.